Article 43


Internet Censorship Revealed

Internet censorship and surveillance are growing global phenomena. ONI’S mission is to identify and documentInternet filtering and surveillance, and to promote and inform wider public dialogue about such practices.

The OpenNet Initiative is a collaborative partnership of four leading academic institutions: the CITIZEN LAB at the Munk Centre for International Studies, University of Toronto, BERKMAN CENTER FOR INTERNET AND SOCIETY at Harvard Law School, the Advanced Network Research Group at the CAMBRIDGE SECURITY PROGRAMME, University of Cambridge, and the Oxford Internet Institute, Oxford University.

Our aim is to investigate, expose and analyze Internet filtering and surveillance practices in a credible and non-partisan fashion. We intend to uncover the potential pitfalls and unintended consequences of these practices, and thus help to inform better public policy and advocacy work in this area. To achieve these aims, the ONI employs a unique multi-disciplinary approach that includes:

1. Development and deployment of a suite of technical enumeration tools and core methodologies for the study of Internet filtering and survellance;

2. Capacity-building among networks of local advocates and researchers;

3. Advanced studies exploring the consequences of current and future trends and trajectories in filtering and surveillance practices, and their implications for domestic and international law and governance regimes.

About Filtering

The number of states that limit access to Internet content has risen rapidly in recent years. Drawing on arguments that are often powerful and compelling such as “securing intellectual property rights,” “protecting national security,” “preserving cultural norms and religious values,” and “shielding children from pornography and exploitation,” many states are implementing extensive filtering practices to curb the perceived lawlessness of the medium. Many others are debating the enactment of similar measures and pursuing technological solutions to complex sociological issues. The following briefly describes the various methods of Internet filtering, the inherent limitations of filtering, and the OpenNet Initiatives methodology for the study of filtering practices.

Overview of Internet Censorship

Internet censorship and content restrictions can be enacted through a number of different strategies which we describe below. Internet filtering normally refers to the technical approaches to control access to information on the Internet, as embodied in the first two of the four approaches described below.

1) Technical blocking

There are three commonly used techniques to block access to Internet sites: IP blocking, DNS tampering, and URL blocking using a proxy. These techniques are used to block access to specific WebPages, domains, or IP addresses. These methods are most frequently used where direct jurisdiction or control over websites are beyond the reach of authorities. Keyword blocking, which blocks access to websites based on the words found in URLs or blocks searches involving blacklisted terms, is a more advanced technique that a growing number of countries are employing. Filtering based on dynamic content analysisҗeffectively reading the content of requested websitesthough theoretically possible, has not been observed in our research. Denial of service attacks produce the same end result as other technical blocking techniquesחblocking access to certain websitescarried out through indirect means.

2) Search result removals

In several instances, companies that provide Internet search services cooperate with governments to omit illegal or undesirable websites from search results. Rather than blocking access to the targeted sites, this strategy makes finding the sites more difficult.

3) Take-down

Where regulators have direct access to and legal jurisdiction over web content hosts, the simplest strategy is to demand the removal of websites with inappropriate or illegal content. In several countries, a cease and desist notice sent from one private party to another, with the threat of subsequent legal action, is enough to convince web hosts to take down websites with sensitive content. Where authorities have control of domain name servers, officials can deregister a domain that is hosting restricted content, making the website invisible to the browsers of users seeking to access the site.

4) Induced self-censorship

Another common and effective strategy to limit exposure to Internet content is by encouraging self-censorship both in browsing habits and in choosing content to post online. This may take place through the threat of legal action, the promotion of social norms, or informal methods of intimidation. Arrest and detention related to Internet offenses, or on unrelated charges, have been used in many instances to induce compliance with Internet content restrictions. In many cases, the content restrictions are neither spoken nor written. The perception that the government is engaged in the surveillance and monitoring of Internet activity, whether accurate or not, provides another strong incentive to avoid posting material or visiting sites that might draw the attention of authorities.
Points of Control

Internet filtration can occur at any or all of the following four nodes in network:

1) Internet backbone

State-directed implementation of national content filtering schemes and blocking technologies may be carried out at the backbone level, affecting Internet access throughout an entire country. This is often carried out at the international gateway.

2) Internet Service Providers

Government-mandated filtering is most commonly implemented by Internet Service Providers (ISPs) using any one or combination of the technical filtering techniques mentioned above.

3) Institutions

Filtering of institutional level networks using technical blocking and/or induced self-censorship occurs in companies, government organizations, schools and cybercafשs. In some countries, this takes place at the behest of the government. More commonly, institutional-level filtering is carried out to meet the internal objectives of the institution such as preventing the recreational use of workplace computers.

4) Individual computers

Home or individual computer level filtering can be achieved through the installation of filtering software that restricts an individual computers ability to access certain sites.

Countries have been known to order filtering at all of these levels, whether setting up filtration systems at the international gateway to eliminate access to content throughout the entire country, instructing ISPs to block access to certain sites, obligating schools to filter their networks, or requiring libraries to install filtration software on each individual computer they provide.

Filtering’s Inherent Flaws

Filtering technologies, however, are prone to two simple inherent flaws: underblocking and overblocking. While technologies can be effective at blocking specific content such as high profile web sites, current technology is not able to accurately identify and target specific categorizes of content found on the billions of webpages and other Internet media including news groups, email lists, chat rooms and instant messaging. Underblocking refers to the failure of filtering to block access to all the content targeted for censorship. On the other hand, filtering technologies often block content they do not intend to block, also known as overblocking. Many blacklists are generated through a combination of manually designated web sites as well as automated searches and, thus, often contain websites that have been incorrectly classified. In addition, blunt filtering methods such as IP blocking can knock out large swaths of acceptable websites simply because they are hosted on the same IP address as a site with restricted content.

The profusion of Internet content means that Internet filtering regimes that hope to comprehensively block access to certain types of content must rely on software providers with automated content identification methods. This effectively puts control over access in the hands of private corporations that are not subject to the standards of review common in government mandates. In addition, because the filters are often proprietary, there is often no transparency in terms of the labeling and restricting of sites. The danger is most explicit when the corporations that produce content filtering technology work alongside undemocratic regimes in order to set-up nationwide content filtering schemes. Most states that implement content filtering and blocking augment commercially generated blocklists with customized lists that focus on topics and organizations that are nation or language-specific.

How ONI Studies Internet Filtration

Measuring and describing the rapidly spreading phenomenon of Internet filtration defies simple metrics. Ideally, we would like to know how Internet censorship reduces the availability of information, how it hampers the development of online communities, and how it inhibits the ability of civic groups to monitor and report on the activities of the government, as these impact governance and ultimately economic growth. However, even if we were able to identify all the websites that have been put out of reach due to government action, the impact of blocking access to each website is far from obvious, particularly in this networked world where information has a habit of propagating itself and reappearing in multiple locations. With this recognition of the inherent complexity of evaluating Internet censorship, we set out with modest goals Җ to identify and documentfiltering.

Two lists of websites are checked in each of the countries tested: a global list (constant for each country) and a local list (different for each country). The global list is comprised of internationally relevant websites with provocative or objectionable content (see table of tested topics below) in English. The local lists are designed individually for each country to unearth unique filtering and blocking behavior. In countries where Internet censorship has been reported, the local lists also include those sites that were alleged to have been blocked. These lists, however, are not meant to be exhaustive.

The actual tests are run from within each country using specially designed software. Where appropriate, the tests are run from different locations to capture the differences in blocking behavior across ISPs and across multiple days and weeks to control for normal connectivity problems.

The completion of the initial accessibility testing is just the first step in our evaluation process. Additional diagnostic work is performed to separate normal connectivity errors from intentional tampering. There are a number of technical alternatives for filtering the Internet, some of which are relatively easy to discover. Others are difficult to detect and require extensive diagnostic work to confirm.

After analysis, the results are released in the form of country and regional reports, as well as in the blocked websites database tool on the OpenNet Initiative website. Please check the website often for updates!


Posted by Elvis on 05/23/07 •
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  1. Censorship ‘changes face of net’

    BBC News
    June 6, 2007

    Amnesty International has warned that the internet “could change beyond all recognition” unless action is taken against the erosion of online freedoms.

    The warning comes ahead of a conference organised by Amnesty, where victims of repression will outline their plights.

    The “virus of internet repression” has spread from a handful of countries to dozens of governments, said the group.

    Amnesty accused companies such as Google, Microsoft and Yahoo of being complicit in the problem.

    Website closures

    When challenged on their presence in countries such as China in the past, the companies accused have always maintained that they were simply abiding by local laws.

    Amnesty is concerned that censorship is on the increase.

    “The Chinese model of an internet that allows economic growth but not free speech or privacy is growing in popularity, from a handful of countries five years ago to dozens of governments today who block sites and arrest bloggers,” said Tim Hancock, Amnesty’s campaign director.

    “Unless we act on this issue, the internet could change beyond all recognition in the years to come.

    More and more governments are realising the utility of controlling what people see online and major internet companies, in an attempt to expand their markets, are colluding in these attempts,” he said.

    According to the latest Open Net Initiative report on internet filtering, at least 25 countries now apply state-mandated net filtering including Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Burma, Ethiopia, India, Iran, Morocco and Saudi Arabia.

    Egyptian blogger

    Filtering was only one aspect of internet repression, the group said. It added that increasingly it was seeing “politically motivated” closures of websites and net cafes, as well as threats and imprisonments.

    Twenty-two-year-old Egyptian blogger Abdul Kareem Nabeel Suleiman was imprisoned for four years in February for insulting Islam and defaming the President of Egypt.

    Fellow Egyptian blogger Amr Gharbeia told the BBC that the internet was allowing people to express themselves: “The web is creating a more open society, it is allowing more people to speak out. It’s only natural that upsets some people.”

    The Amnesty conference - Some People Think the Internet is a Bad Thing: The Struggle for Freedom of Expression in Cyberspace - will have some well-known speakers including Wikipedia founder Jimmy Wales.

    It marks the first anniversary of Amnesty’s website, which is being relaunched to become an information hub for anyone interested in the future of internet freedom.


    Posted by Burned Out Baby Boomer  on  06/07/07






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