Article 43

 

Thursday, July 01, 2021

NWO - Dollars and DNA

image caronavirust

The coronavirus outbreak has exposed the United States’ dangerous dependence on China for pharmaceutical and medical supplies, including an estimated 97 percent of all antibiotics and 80 percent of the active pharmaceutical ingredients needed to produce drugs in the United States.
- Coronavirus Outbreak Exposes Chinas Monopoly on U.S. Drug, Medical Supplies

In a court case in 2013 PATHOLOGY V MYRIAD GENETICS INC, in the United States the Supreme Court ruled that you cannot patent human DNA as it was a “product of nature.” But at the end of the ruling the Supreme Court did rule that if you were to change a humans genome by mRNA vaccines (which are being used currently) then the genome can be patented.

This means that everyone who has had the vaccine is now technically patented and something that is patented is ‘owned’ and will come under the definition of ‘trans human’.

Those people that are legally identified as ‘trans human’ do not have access to Human Rights or any rights provided by the State. This is because they are not classed as 100% organic or human.

Therefore, technically anyone having this vaccine could no longer have any access to human rights.  There have been a few legal papers discussing this recently, so clarification should be available on this soon.

4) mRNA is CRISPR technology (moderna have described it as their “operating system") and are looking for technology to reverse the side effects, like you would do with a computer.

There is a patent at the moment LINKED to this technology:

WO2020060606 - CRYPTOCURRENCY SYSTEM USING BODY ACTIVITY DATA

The technology is to be placed in your body, you are then barcoded and attached to cryptocurrency.  The technology tracks your body activity and when you reach a satisfactory amount of ‘activity’ you will get paid your cryptocurrency. This is the brief version of the patent but you need to look into it properly.
- The UK Freedom Alliance

Bill Gates Chooses Corporate Patent Rights Over Human Lives

By Luke Savage
Jacobin
April, 2021

The global battle over drug company patents for COVID-19 vaccines is the latest skirmish in the irrepressible conflict between property rights and human rights. Its no surprise that Bill Gates, the monopolist billionaire, has taken the side of patents.

It’s hard to imagine a single event that could make the case for international cooperation more forcefully than a global pandemic. An infectious virus, by definition, has no regard for national politics or borders and, even with the total shutdown of all travel, is bound to threaten people in every country, disrupting daily life and commerce in the process. Virtually everyone - regardless of country, wealth, or occupation therefore has an immediate interest in reaching global herd immunity as quickly as possible. The sole exception, however, also happens to be the very industry currently at the center of vaccine production: namely, the various for-profit pharma giants that have become household names as untold millions anxiously await their jabs across every continent.

If a global pandemic makes an irrefutable case for cooperation between all nations, classes, and demographics, it also underscores the irreconcilable conflict between the needs of the many and the profits of a small few. Drug companies, after all, would stand to lose billions if their formulae were shared and supply increased, which is the main reason theyגre currently resisting efforts to amend the world’s STRICT INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY REGIME so that vaccine production and distribution can expand. Notwithstanding this greed, COVID-19 has been an unprecedented PR coup for pharmaceutical giants, whose apologists have issued a PREDICTABLE SMOKE-SCREEN OF SELF-INTERESTED bad arguments to justify patent hoarding.

Chief among them has been billionaire Bill Gates who last weekend used an appearance on Britain’s Sky News to explain why the various recipes for vaccines currently held by drug companies should not, in fact, be shared so that production and distribution can increase. Asked directly by Sk’ys Sophy Ridge if he thought changing patent restrictions “would be helpful,” Gates answered with a quick and curt “no,” before continuing:

“Well, there’s only so many vaccine factories in the world, and people are very serious about the safety of vaccines. And so moving something that had never been done - moving a vaccine from, say, a [Johnson & Johnson] factory into a factory in India itגs novel. Its only because of our grants and our expertise that can happen at all. The thing that’s holding things back in this case is not intellectual property. Theres not like some idle vaccine factory, with regulatory approval, that makes magically safe vaccines. You know, you’ve got to do the trials on these things, and every manufacturing process has to be looked at in a very careful way.”

This is, quite simply, untrue.

Arguably more than any other single figure, the billionaire has mobilized his immense personal wealth and power to ensure that the interests of for-profit drug companies prevail over global public health.

As the Guardian’s Stephen Buranyi recently reported, plenty of manufacturing capacity currently stands ready to produce vaccines if given the necessary authorization. A single, relatively small Canadian company, as Buranyi discovered, says it’s capable of producing twenty million vaccine doses for people in the Global South but has been rebuffed by both AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson. “If we had started this last year, we could have shipped millions of doses by now,” the company’s vice president John Fulton told the Guardian. “This is supposed to be like a wartime effort, everyone in it together. But that doesn’t seem to be the case.” Fulton is right, and his Ontario-based Biolyse represents only one manufacturer AMONG many equipped with the capacity to produce vaccines if patent restrictions were to be lifted.

He’s also right that the rhetoric of solidarity so ubiquitous at the pandemic’s outset has been largely hot air. Though untold public investment played a KEY ROLE in the development of vaccines, shareholders in private pharma companies HAVE RAKED IN HUGE FORTUNES while rollout has overwhelmingly benefited the RICHEST 16 PERCENT of the global population many poorer nations not expected to achieve effective vaccination levels FOR ANOTHER TWO YEARS, the most significant reason being inadequate supply.

Gates, who incidentally owes much of his own fortune to monopolistic intellectual property laws, has been more than a passive actor in the pandemic - having, among other things, CONVINCED Oxford University to renege on its original promise of a no-patent vaccine and PARTNER with the profit-driven AstraZeneca instead. ARGUABLY more than any other SINGLE FIGURE, the billionaire has mobilized his immense personal wealth and power to ensure that the interests of for-profit drug companies prevail over global public health.

As is already quite clear, it’s a recipe for vaccine apartheid and preventable death: one that will ensure people in richer countries get vaccinated more quickly and supply remains far short of what it otherwise could be. Humanity may be at war with a deadly virus, but one of the chief antagonists in the conflict is the profit mechanism at the heart of global capitalism itself. If that mechanism ultimately triumphs over humanitarian common sense, the pandemic will last longer, countless people will suffer needlessly, and we’ll have monopolist ideologues like Bill Gates to thank.

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Why Big Pharma Wants Human Vaccine Factories

By Julie Beal
Activist Post
June 29, 2021

Not all coronavirus vaccines use mRNA or DNA. Some of them contain ready-made spike proteins that are made using synthetic biology. They’re grotesquely unnatural and laced with weird ADJUVANTS that most people have never heard of. The way the artificial proteins are made reveals the short cuts being taken with the mRNA/DNA versions and why calling them vaccines is the equivalent to saying a home-brew kit is the same as a glass of wine.

Bringing the DNA to life

To make a protein vaccine you need a bunch of cells and a bioreactor to put them in. DNA is injected into the cells and activated with a spark of electric, in a process known as electroporation. The cells are kept alive by feeding them so they replicate or grow, and at the same time they pump out the proteins that were encoded into the DNA. VALNEVA is producing a CARONAVIRUS VACCINE using cells that came from THE KIDNEY OF AN AFRICAN GREEN MONKEY, whilst others are using insect cells. Other proteins are grown in yeast cells, and there’s a flu vaccine grown in cells from the larvae of a moth. The DNA from any of these cells can end up in the vaccine.

How to Make a Protein Vaccine

Customize the genetic sequence of the protein using a bioinformatics computer program such as DNASTAR.

Create DNA versions of the virus protein. (This often involves using RT-PCR to amplify the required sequences, then using E. coli and a bacteriophage to transcribe them.)

Combine the DNA with a different kind of virus to create a hybrid.

Use this hybrid virus to infect a cell line in a bioreactor (basically a big metal vat).

Feed the cells with a special broth, e.g. salts, vitamins, sugars, amino acids and serum from a baby cow.

After a few days, harvest and purify the proteins, mix them with adjuvants and other ingredients, then wang them all together and call it a vaccine.

Using people as vaccine-factories

Genetic vaccines containing DNA or mRNA miss out the last few steps of this production process. Instead of using cells in a bioreactor to manufacture proteins, they use the cells of the human body. This means the substance being injected only becomes vaccine-like once the host has done the work and produced whichever protein its encoded with. It saves manufacturers a huge amount of time and money by turning people into walking-talking vaccine-factories that do the job for them. The production of the vaccine only occurs if the body translates the genetic sequences, so there’s no way to know what dose anybody’s getting, because some people may translate more of the sequences and therefore make more proteins!

A lot of synthetic vaccines have had bad press (e.g. Pandemrix in the 2009 fake pandemic) but Big Pharma has plenty more planned because it’s a versatile and patentable platform. The HEROIN VACCINE is a good example of this; it contains tetanus proteins attached to heroin molecules to make people produce anti-heroin antibodies!

And how long would it take for flu vaccines to be added to the vax ID passport?

Flublok a synthetic flu vaccine

Flublok has been licensed for use IN THE UK and the US. It contains hemagglutinin (HA) proteins from four different influenza viruses (e.g. 2009 SWINE FLU virus). The HAs of all four strains are encoded into a genetically engineered insect virus (called baculovirus) and used to infect a cell-line generated from THE OVARIES OF THE FALL ARMYWORM (it’s related to MOTHS, CATERPILLARS AND BUTTERFLIES). This infected mass of cells is fermented in a big metal vat or bioreactor, and kept alive by feeding it a CHEMICALLY-DEFINED broth. When enough HA proteins have been produced by the cells, they’re extracted with TRITION X-100 (which may have POTENTIAL ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING PROPERTIES).  It also contains Tween20 and HAS NOT BEEN EVALUATED FOR CARCINOGENIC OR MUTAGENIC POTENTIAL.

Genetic Contaminants

Protein vaccines are often tainted with contaminants, such as DNA from the cells they were grown in, and these are usually listed in the package insert. For instance, Flublok may contain some proteins or DNA from the insect cells or baculovirus it was grown in. Another example is the two vaccines for rotavirus that were found to contain DNA FROM A PIG VIRUS. Theres also a risk of microbes such as mycoplasma getting into vaccines; this happened in 2015 when a group of 94 people were injected with a GENETIC HIV VACCINE contaminated with a type of bacteria normally found in pigs.

Weird Adjuvants

Synthetic protein vaccines are thought to be ineffective unless they contain adjuvants. All sorts of weird stuff has been invented over the last ten years or so, using chemical and genetic engineering to create substances that can force the body to have a particular type of immune response. For example, nanoparticles can make people produce inflammatory cytokines by activating THE INFLAMMASOME. Protein vaccines often contain lipid nanoparticles, such as MPLA, saponin, cholesterol and squalene. Many also contain aluminium, and some contain CpG ODNs and other weird stuff like cholera toxins.

MPLA:

LIPID A IS THE TOXIC PRINCIPLE of lipopolysaccharide of gram negative bacteria, which causes a spectrum of changes in blood cells and vascular cells… human platelets are directly stimulated by endotoxic lipid A” MONOPHOSPHORYL LIPID A (MPLA) is a small part of Lipid A thats been derived from Salmonella bacteria and is said to be CHEMICALLY DETOXTIFIED. It’s been used in several vaccines, including CERVARIX and Mosquirix.

Developed by GSK, THE WHO, AND THE GATES FOUNDATION, Mosquirix contains malaria proteins fused with Hepatitis B proteins and is produced in yeast cells. It also contains a GSK adjuvant called AS01E, which combines MPLA with a saponin called QS-21 and is given to babies aged 6 weeks to 17 months. Mosquirix was rolled out in parts of Africa in 2019 even though THE OVERALL MORTALITY RATE for girls receiving the vaccine had almost doubled. The ingredients and EXCIPIENTS listed in the PACKET INSERT read like a recipe for chemical soup, and include a lipid called DOPC and a type of detergent called POLYSORBATE 80.

CpG ODNs:

The Valneva vaccine mentioned above contains aluminium and CpG-1018. This genetic adjuvant is a CpG ODN (oligonucleotide) which is a very short genetic sequence, or molecular pattern, associated with certain types of virus and bacteria. CpG ODNs play a trick on the body because they make the immune system react as if they were real bacteria. Theyre made from a cytosine molecule paired with a guanine molecule, forming a little couplet that would normally be connected to a backbone made of phosphate. When CpG ODNs are created as adjuvants, however, theyҒre tweaked on the nano-level in a highly unnatural way. Molecules in the backbone are tweaked so the phosphate backbone becomes a phosphorothioate backbone which is not at all normal but apparently they make the CpGs more stable so vax makers do it anyway. Phosphorothioate is also used in mRNA constructs and may be in the Moderna and Pfizer jabs.

CpG ODNs:

The Valneva vaccine mentioned above contains aluminium and CpG-1018. This genetic adjuvant is a CpG ODN (oligonucleotide) which is a very short genetic sequence, or molecular pattern, associated with certain types of virus and bacteria. CpG ODNs play a trick on the body because they make the immune system react as if they were real bacteria. Theyre made from a cytosine molecule paired with a guanine molecule, forming a little couplet that would normally be connected to a backbone made of phosphate. When CpG ODNs are created as adjuvants, however, theyҒre tweaked on the nano-level in a highly unnatural way. Molecules in the backbone are tweaked so the phosphate backbone becomes a phosphorothioate backbone which is not at all normal but apparently they make the CpGs more stable so vax makers do it anyway. Phosphorothioate is also used in mRNA constructs and may be in the Moderna and Pfizer jabs.

A company called Dynavax[ii] makes CpG-1018 and add it to their Hepatitis vaccine despite the fact that its been linked to heart attacks. Previous research has also shown that CpG-based adjuvants “could potentially trigger autoimmune disease in a susceptible individual, and the 2017 FDA review of all the adverse events linked to the vax included three cases of autoimmune disease. All vaccines produced using synthetic biology are classed as ‘biologicals’ and are excluded from the usual tests to see if they’re safe. For example: The range and type of genotoxicity studies routinely conducted for pharmaceuticals are not applicable to biotechnology-derived pharmaceuticals and therefore are not needed.” As a result, protein vaccines usually say on the package insert that they haven’t been tested (much) to see if they affect fertility, etc. and it looks as if the mRNA and DNA jabs have been given the same authorization.

How will people’s bodies react to these unnatural genetic creations? Will the world be forced to adapt to the new genetics? When it comes to antibodies, for instance, we make ones that match the antigen were reacting against so if the proteins are attached to polyethylene glycol (PEG), we might make ANTI-LUCIFERASE ANTIBODIES. The same thing happens with unnatural genetics, as shown by research in which animals were injected with CpG ODNs with a phosphorothioate backbone, and they responded by producing PHOSPHOROTHIOATE BACKBONE-SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES.

The shape of the proteins

Proteins are made of strings of amino acids, and they’re all FOLDED INTO SPECIFIC SHAPES. When proteins become mis-folded, they are less likely to create the desired type of antibodies, and this has been linked to vaccine-associated disease enhancement (VADE). A well-known example of this type of vaccine-risk is antibody dependent enhancement, or ADE, and is linked to SARS vaccines. Viruses in old-fashioned vaccines could end up mis-shapen when formalin was used to inactivate them so they didn’t look like the original virus anymore, and this was said to be one of the reasons people made the wrong kind of antibodies and got ADE after having vaccines against measles, etc. Cell-based proteins are said to have the same problem since they can also become mis-shapen or unfolded due to the way theyre produced. Proteins produced in cells can end up having A DIFFERENT THREE DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE than the protein in its normal context, resulting in the production of antibodies that may not recognize the infectious organism.

IT IS IMPORTANT to express proteins of disease agents with the greatest possible similarity to the authentic molecule so that the proper immune response is induced when the proteins are used as a vaccine.

Lots of things can cause a protein to get warped or denatured, such as changes in pH or temperature. Even the stuff they add as adjuvants can warp the proteins, e.g. ALUMINUM can cause them to UNFOLD whilst lipid emulsions can INDUCE STRUCTURAL CHANGES.  This is one of the reasons why there have been attempts to stabilize the proteins added to vaccines, as illustrated by Novavax.

The Novavax protein vaccine

Novavax was awarded $1.6 BILLION through “Operation Warp Speed” to make their NVX-CoV2373 coronavirus protein vaccine using baculoviruses and insect cells, so its very similar to the Valneva and Sanofi/GSK vaccines which are also made with baculoviruses and insect cells. Novavax had plenty of practice with the spike protein before the ronascam began, because they;d already developed a MERS-CoV vax and had even tested it on humans. This vaccine was described in a 2013 PATENT and contains their proprietary adjuvant, Matrix-M. This adjuvant is a mixture of saponin, cholesterol, and phospholipid nanoparticles, and its being added to their coronavirus vaccine.

The patent also covers SARS coronaviruses and describes using, “protein engineering and recombinant DNA technology to improve or alter the characteristics of the proteins.” The resulting product can be used in one of two ways: either injected directly into humans as a vaccine, or injected into humanized cows or horses so they produce SIDE AFFECTS including fatigue, loose stools, and sore throat.

The Novavax Corona-Makeover

Novavax is now using the NIHs pre-fusion design to make the spike protein. (AstraZeneca isnҒt, but J&J, Moderna and Pfizer are!) The pre-fusion design involves changing (or mutating) two amino acids to proline and is usually referred to as S-2P. Proline is used to lock the spike into position by making it more rigid and less likely to unfold but these ultra-stable spikes could cause even more damage to the body than the original virus because theyre also extra-spikey! On top of that, they can easily spread around the body because theyҒre really small and protected by lipid nanoparticles. The current coronavirus vaccines have been shown to reach the brain, ovaries and testis; this could cause inflammation in these very sensitive areas and may explain some of the neurological and menstrual problems people have been reporting.

Novavax have created some extra mutations in the spike by changing the amino acids that constitute the furin cleavage site, which consists of four amino acids. Novavax have mutated it FROM RRAR TO QQAQ (R=Arginine; A=Alanine; Q=Glutamine). Its worth knowing about these kinds of mutations because they were a key part of the gain-of-function (GoF) research funded by the NIH and outsourced to the Wuhan Institute of Virology in China. The SARS-CoV-2 virus appears to be a man-made construct and could have been enabled by the insights gained during this GoF research. Future articles will look at these issues in more detail, such as the furin cleavage site which nobody can explain.

The unusual appearance of a furin cleavage site was a boon for the NIH because they;d spent the previous decade experimenting with the structure of coronaviruses in the Argonne National Laboratory, and had come up with the S-2P pre-fusion design in 2014. The development of a coronavirus vaccine was complemented by the GoF research, e.g. using the bat coronaviruses to patent a coronavirus vaccine!

The NIH was also doing secretive work with Moderna that involved using MERS and other viruses that also have a furin cleavage site this includes most of the so-called outbreaks that have occurred over the past two decades! All of this research resulted in the creation of the NIH’s ronascam solutions-package that was ready-to-go by 2020…

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Bill Gates, Vaccinations, Microchips, And Patent 060606

By Leonid Savin
Oriental View
April 29, 2020

There are many conspiracy theories some believe that reptilians are running the US government and others believe that Coca-Cola uses the blood of Christian babies to produce its soft drinks. There are people who have seen ֓chemtrails and others who advocate wearing tinfoil hats when watching television to protect from destructive brainwashing waves. Often, the prophecies of Scripture are interpreted as a commentary on some technological discovery or event. But there are also rational facts that it doesnԒt make sense to deny because they are documented. These include the existence of the Bilderberg club, the CIAs MK-Ultra project, and George SorosҒ funding of dubious political activities in a number of countries.

The case described below relates to an officially documented fact, although there is something rather biblical about it. Patent WO/2020/060606 was registered on 26 March 2020. The patent application was filed by Microsoft Technology Licensing, LLC, headed by Bill Gates, back on 20 June 2019, and, on 22 April 2020, THE PATENT WAS GRANTED INTERNATIONAL STATUS. The title of the patent is Cryptocurrency system using body activity data.”

So, what is this invention that the people at Microsoft decided to patent? The abstract of the patent application online STATES: “Human body activity associated with a task provided to a user may be used in a mining process of a cryptocurrency system. A server may provide a task to a device of a user which is communicatively coupled to the server. A sensor communicatively coupled to or comprised in the device of the user may sense body activity of the user. Body activity data may be generated based on the sensed body activity of the user. The cryptocurrency system communicatively coupled to the device of the user may verify if the body activity data satisfies one or more conditions set by the cryptocurrency system, and award cryptocurrency to the user whose body activity data is verified.”

n other words, a chip will be inserted into the body that monitors a persons daily physical activity in return for cryptocurrency. If conditions are met, then the person receives certain bonuses that can be spent on something.

A detailed DESCRIPTION of the “invention” provides 28 concepts for how the device could be used.

It also provides a list of countries for which the invention is intended. Essentially, this is all the members of the United Nations and a few regional organisations specified separately - the European Patent Office, the Eurasian Patent Organization, and two African intellectual property protection organisations.

Although inserting microchips into the body is nothing new - the MASONIC YOUTH CHILD IDENTIFICATION PROGRAM has been in operation in the US for a while, and people calling themselves CYBORGS exhibit various implants - Microsoft’s involvement is interesting. And why has the patent been given the code number 060606? Is it a coincidence or the deliberate choice of what is referred to in the Book of Revelation as the number of the beast?

Bill Gates name is CONSTANTLY BEING MENTIONED these days in connection with his interests in pharmaceutical companies, vaccinations, and WHO funding. Although the globalist media try to highlight Bill Gates as a great philanthropist and protect him from attacks and criticism in every way possible, it is unlikely they’ll be able to conceal a whole web of connections.

Bill Gates company is involved in another project - the digital ID project ID2020 Alliance. On the websites homepage, it says that the project has been addressing the issue of digital rights since 2016. In 2018, the Alliance worked with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Besides Microsoft, the Alliance includes the Rockefeller Foundation, the design studio IDEO.org (with offices in San Francisco and New York), the consulting firm Accenture, and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance - a company that actively promotes and distributes various vaccines around the world. The Secretariat for the Alliance is based in New York.

It is telling that Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance mostly covers countries in Africa and Asia. In Europe, the organisation is only active in Albania, Croatia, Moldova and Ukraine, and, in the Caucasus, in Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance also has links with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, and UNICEF. These are all listed as founding partners!

Since February 2020, Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance has been focusing on the coronavirus pandemic. The organisations CEO is Dr Seth Berkley. Although the headquarters of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance are in Geneva, Berkley himself, an epidemiologist by training, is from New York. Since the late 1980s, he has spent eight years working at the Rockefeller Foundation and is a fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations. He is also an advisory council member of the New York-based ACUMEN Fund.

So, yet another link has been found. Theological interpretations of the patent number are probably best left to experts on religion, but it is clear that there are strong links between organisations and companies like the Rockefeller Foundation, Microsoft, the pharmaceutical lobby and the World Bank Group, not to mention secondary service providers. They are trying to play the role of a supranational government by constantly focusing on the fact that, these days, national governments cannot cope with epidemics, illnesses, famines, etc. single-handed. But, as China has shown, they can. The West cannot and does not want to acknowledge this, however, largely because it does not want to share power. So, the globalist media will continue their information campaigns, where the blame will be placed anywhere but on the West. It is telling that right now, as additional information on the coronavirus has started to emerge, false stories on Chinas role in the epidemic have been stepped up and statistics MANIPULATED.

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Supreme Court Rejects Human-Gene Patents—Sort Of

By Daniel Fisher
Forbes
June 13, 2013

The U.S. Supreme Court today declared human genes off-limits for PATENT PROTECTION, drawing a line between “naturally occurring” DNA sequences and similar genes entirely created in the lab.

The court’s unanimous decision in ASSOCIATION FOR MOLECULAR PATHOLOGY VS. MYRIAD GENETICS will cheer researchers and other critics who said it was bad policy to allow a private company to obtain a patent on the BRCA genes implicated in breast cancer.

By making a distinction between “natural” DNA and a lab-created synthetic version called complementary DNA, however, Justice Clarence Thomas may have seized on a distinction that will be difficult to maintain over the long run.

“It’s one of these situations where candidly, it just makes me sad there isn’t a higher level of basic biology knowledge in the world,” said Brenda Jarrell, a Ph.D biochemist and partner with at Choate, Hall & Stewart in Boston. “Unfortunately, this is the Supreme Court.”

The decision overturns years of policy at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office in favor of gene patents and could endanger thousands of such patents already granted. But that threat may be overstated, said attorney William Gaede with McDermott Will & Emery. The Patent Office has been less inclined to issue gene patents in recent years, especially since researchers have sequenced the entire human genome.

“Most of those claims are old, and many of these patents have expired,” he said.

The case involved BRCA genes that Myriad identified and isolated in order to make a test to identify women at risk for breast cancer. (Actress ANGELINA JOLIE recently revealed she HAD HER BREASTS REMOVED after testing positive for the genes.) Myriad argued the patents were justified in light of the years of work its researchers put into identifying the genes, each containing a few thousand nucleotides, on chromosomes containing tens of millions of nucleotides each.

Thomas, in his opinion, seized upon the fact that Myriad’s patents covered sequences of proteins exactly analogous to ones found in nature. The patent covers any genes that contain strands as small as 15 nucleotides long identified as belonging to the BRCA gene. That could grant the company an effective monopoly over BRCA genes even if they contained significant mutations of interest to researchers, he said.

The decision comes down to what one commentator has said should be the guiding question for patent examiners: “What did you do with your hands?” In identifying specific gene sequences, Myriad didn’t actually create anything, Thomas said.

“The location and order of the nucleotides existed in nature before Myriad found them,” he wrote. “Groundbreaking, innovative, or even brilliant discovery,” doesn’t satisfy the requirement that inventors invent something, he said.

He also rejected the idea that by isolating the gene and separating it from the surrounding chromosome, Myriad had created something new. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit approved approved Myriad’s “natural” BRCA genes, with one judge saying they were patentable because the act of isolating them cleaved chemical bonds linking them to the rest of the chromosome.

Thomas rejected that argument, saying it wasn’t enough to overcome the rule against patents on naturally occurring things. The Federal Circuit is a specialized court for patent appeals, but the Supreme Court has overruled it in several significant cases recently where it felt judges there had been too accomodating to patent owners.

The high court agreed with the Federal Circuit that cDNA is patentable, which was also the stance of the U.S. government. The reasoning is cDNA requires actual work in the laboratory and inverts the normal process found in nature. The synthetic DNA is an edited version of a gene, stripped of non-coding regions. The court said that makes cDNA “not naturally occurring.”

Critics say even the edited sequences are directly analogous to naturally occurring DNA. “That may be so,” Thomas wrote, “but the lab technician unquestionably creates something new when cDNA is made.”

Jarrell, who has a doctorate in biochemistry from the University of California in addition to a Harvard Law degree, said Thomas is wrong. Not only do researchers make cDNA with naturally occurring tools, but the exact same process can occur naturally in the body.

“It’s not actually correct to say cDNA is not a product of nature,” she said. “There’s nothing more inventive about making cDNA than isolating DNA.”

The DNA/cDNA distinction also could provide grist for future litigation, since cDNA is a gene sequence consisting only of exons, or nucleotides that code for amino acids.

“What if you took that same cDNA sequence and added non-functional introns?” asked DALILA ARGAEZ WENDLANDT, a partner with Ropes & Gray. Would that allow for a successful end-run around the patent?

Thomas was careful to state what the decision is not about. It doesn’t concern method patents covering novel new ways to isolate genes. Nor does it concern novel ways of applying genes for treatments. He even held out hope for inventors who alter the order of naturally occurring DNA sequences.

“We merely hold that genes and the information they encode are not patent eligible ...simply because they have been isolated from the surrounding genetic material,” he said.

Justice Antonin Scalia gave the faintest hint of concern in a concurrence, where he said he agreed with the judgment but couldn’t sign off on the heavily technical parts of the opinion. “I am unable to affirm those details on my own knowledge or even my own belief,” he said, although he agreed with the distinction between sequences taken exactly from nature and cDNA synthetically created in the lab.

Jarrell, who represents biotechnology companies, said she worries the decision will introduce more uncertainty into the patent system as examiners try to determine what they are blocked from considering for a patent and what might still be eligible. “It is a valuable discovery to figure out what gene sequences make you susceptible to breast cancer and which ones don’t,” she said, but patents based merely on those sequences are probably now barred.

The decision appears to allow a diagnostic method in which researchers attach a radioactive probe to a specific gene, but perhaps opponents could argue the gene sequence that makes the test useful is barred under this decision.

Gaede said biotech companies want to patent gene sequences because simply having a patent on a method offers less protection. Rivals can manufacture products according to the method overseas, where U.S. patent law doesn’t reach, he said, whereas owners could block those products from coming into the country if they also have a patent on the sequence. He also noted an ironic side effect of today’s decision. Some companies are working on human antibodies that are purified of the proteins left over from mouse antibodies that are their frequent source. But the closer the antibody comes to the pure human sequence, he said, the more likely it is to run afoul of Myriad.

“You may want to have something that is as close to nature as possible,” he said, but drug companies will have to consider whether that makes it harder for them to recover their investment.

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What is CRISPR

New Scientist

CRISPR is a technology that can be used to edit genes and, as such, will likely change the world.

The essence of CRISPR is simple: its a way of finding a specific bit of DNA inside a cell. After that, the next step in CRISPR gene editing is usually to alter that piece of DNA. However, CRISPR has also been adapted to do other things too, such as turning genes on or off without altering their sequence.

There were ways to edit the genomes of some plants and animals before the CRISPR method was unveiled in 2012 but it took years and cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. CRISPR has made it cheap and easy.

CRISPR is already widely used for scientific research, and in the not too distant future many of the plants and animals in our farms, gardens or homes may have been altered with CRISPR. In fact, some people already are eating CRISPRed food.

CRISPR technology also has the potential to transform medicine, enabling us to not only treat but also prevent many diseases. We may even decide to use it to change the genomes of our children. An attempt to do this in China has been condemned as premature and unethical, but some think it could benefit children in the future.

CRISPR is being used for all kinds of other purposes too, from fingerprinting cells and logging what happens inside them to directing evolution and creating gene drives.

The key to CRISPR is the many flavours of ғCas proteins found in bacteria, where they help defend against viruses. The Cas9 protein is the most widely used by scientists. This protein can easily be programmed to find and bind to almost any desired target sequence, simply by giving it a piece of RNA to guide it in its search.

When the CRISPR Cas9 protein is added to a cell along with a piece of guide RNA, the Cas9 protein hooks up with the guide RNA and then moves along the strands of DNA until it finds and binds to a 20-DNA-letter long sequence that matches part of the guide RNA sequence. ThatԒs impressive, given that the DNA packed into each of our cells has six billion letters and is two metres long.

What happens next can vary. The standard Cas9 protein cuts the DNA at the target. When the cut is repaired, mutations are introduced that usually disable a gene. This is by far the most common use of CRISPR. Its called genome editing Җ or gene editing but usually the results are not as precise as that term implies.

CRISPR can also be used to make precise changes such as replacing faulty genes ֖ true genome editing but this is far more difficult.

Customised Cas proteins have been created that do not cut DNA or alter it in any way, but merely turn genes on or off: CRISPRa and CRISPRi respectively. Yet others, called base editors, change one letter of the DNA code to another.

So why do we call it CRISPR? Cas proteins are used by bacteria to destroy viral DNA. They add bits of viral DNA to their own genome to guide the Cas proteins, and the odd patterns of these bits of DNA are what gave CRISPR its name: clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats. Michael Le Page

SOURCE

Posted by Elvis on 07/01/21 •
Section Revelations • Section NWO
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